Naming and diagonalization, from Cantor to g¨ odel to Kleene

odel’s incompleteness results apply to formal theories for which syntactic constructs can be given names, in the same language, so that some basic syntactic operations are representable in the theory. It is now customary to derive these results from the fixed point theorem (also known as the reflection theorem), which asserts the existence of sentences that “speak about themselves”. Let T be the theory and, for each wff φ, let pφq be the term that serves as its name. Then the theorem says that, for any wff α(v) (with one free variable), there exists a sentence β for which: T ` β ↔ α(pβq) β is sometimes called the fixed point of α(v). All that is needed for the fixed point theorem is..
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