David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Inquiry 54 (1):2-17 (2011)
There is no doubt that Spinoza values what he calls living under the guidance of reason, and that he somehow equates such a life with happiness. What is less clear is exactly how he conceives of such a life, and thus how he conceives of human happiness. According to Arne Naess's interpretation of Spinoza, the virtuous and free person will prefer the life of action, and happiness is best realised through living an active life “in the world”. Other scholars, however, have interpreted Spinoza as suggesting that the maximally free person will prefer a life of contemplation “outside the world”. In this paper, I address Naess's relationship with this aspect of Spinoza's practical philosophy, and propose my own interpretation of Spinoza where happiness, or living under the guidance of reason, consists in a combination of activity and contemplation.
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References found in this work BETA
Peder Anker, Per Ariansen, Alfred J. Ayer, Murray Bookchin, Baird Callicott, John Clark, Bill Devall, Fons Elders, Paul Feyerabend, Warwick Fox, William C. French, Harold Glasser, Ramachandra Guha, Patsy Hallen, Stephan Harding, Andrew Mclaughlin, Ivar Mysterud, Arne Naess, Bryan Norton, Val Plumwood, Peter Reed, Kirkpatrick Sale, Ariel Salleh, Karen Warren, Richard A. Watson, Jon Wetlesen & Michael E. Zimmerman (1999). Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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Arne Naess (1973). The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement. A Summary. Inquiry 16 (1-4):95 – 100.
Amélie Oksenberg Rorty (ed.) (1980). Essays on Aristotle's Ethics. University of California Press.
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