David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Brain and Mind 3 (1):53-77 (2002)
Two strains of male mice have bred over fortygenerations, starting with the work of RobertCairns and his colleagues, one strain with ahigh level of intra-species aggression, theother a low level of aggression. Thehigh-aggression mice tend to establishdominance hierarchies and particularly fight inthe presence of female mice. Thelow-aggression mice tend, in groups of theirown, to have a high degree of low-intensity,peaceful social contact, and to be more timidin initiating action than the high-aggressionmice. Biochemical differences have beenobserved between the two strains, and confirmedby the present data: the high-aggression micehave greater dopamine concentrations (in thecaudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens), lowerlevels of the stress hormone corticosterone,and higher levels of testosterone than thelow-aggression mice. The current experimentswere designed to answer questions about theflexibility of adaptive behaviors:specifically, what is the effect of early dailymaternal separation on adult stress response ineach strain? What are the behavioral andhormonal mechanisms by which, as has beenobserved, low-aggression mice achieve adominant status when brought into situationswhere they compete for territory withhigh-aggression mice? Finally, what are thesocial and neurochemical mechanisms by whichhigh-aggression mice can develop low-aggressionbehavior if brought out of isolation and intogroups?Maternal separation was found to lead todecreases in stress levels, as measured bycorticosterone, in the low-aggression but notthe high-aggression, mice – presumably becauseof the surplus of maternal care the pupsreceive on returning to the nest. When alow-aggression mouse became dominant and ahigh-aggression mouse became submissive, theirusual pattern of corticosterone andtestosterone levels was found to be reversed. The change to low-aggression behavior inhigh-aggression mice switching from anisolation condition to a group condition, wasmediated by a decrease in D 1 dopaminereceptor densities.These results, like the ones on which theybuild, argue for substantial developmentalinfluences in expressions of the genesinfluencing aggressive or cooperative behavior. In this approach to evolution, epigenesis istreated not as a set of traits and behaviorspredetermined by the genome, but as a set ofprobabilistic tendencies toward certain traitsand behaviors.
|Keywords||aggression corticosterone dominance dopamine handling isolation testosterone|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Stephan Strasser (1974). Animal Aggression and Technical Aggression. International Philosophical Quarterly 14 (2):223-228.
E. H. (2001). What Do We Measure When We Measure Aggression? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (4):685-704.
Michael Potegal (2006). Human Cruelty is Rooted in the Reinforcing Effects of Intraspecific Aggression That Subserves Dominance Motivation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3):236-237.
Ralf-Peter Behrendt (2006). Cruelty as by-Product of Ritualisation of Intraspecific Aggression in Cultural Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3):226-227.
Mauro Maldonato (2006). Psychobiology of Conflict. World Futures 62 (5):392 – 400.
Anne Campbell, Steven Muncer & Josie Odber (1998). Primacy of Organising Effects of Testosterone. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):365-365.
Robin Fox (1999). Defending the Young: Female Aggression, Resources, Dominance, and the Emptiness of Patriarchy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):224-225.
Stephen C. Maxson (1999). Some Reflections on Sex Differences in Aggression and Violence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):232-233.
Charles T. Snowdon (1998). The Nurture of Nature: Social, Developmental, and Environmental Controls of Aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):384-385.
Kirsti M. J. Lagerspetz (1999). Theories of Male and Female Aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):229-230.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads5 ( #209,062 of 1,096,223 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #81,717 of 1,096,223 )
How can I increase my downloads?