David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (1):33-102 (2007)
In The Varieties of Religious Experience, William James suggests that the human experience of a fundamental and existential uneasiness can be found at the core of most religious traditions, and that these traditions constiute essentially a proposed solution to this uneasiness. The present investigation focuses upon the notion of uneasiness, particularly fear, and its solution in the early Hindu tradition. Through a close examination of textual expressions of both desire and fear from the R̥gveda, the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, it is proposed that “liberation” in the early Upaniṣadic period, or at least the precursor to the traditional notion of liberation, actually meant freedom from fear, rather than freedom from karma or saṁs̥ra. The Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad suggests that the origin of duality is desire, and duality necessarily results in fear. By relinquishing the sorts of desires so frequently expressed in the earlier vedic literature, together with an understanding of the essentially non-dual relationship between the ātman and brahman, a state of complete freedom from fear (abhaya) may be achieved.
|Keywords||Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad Fear Desire William James|
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References found in this work BETA
William James (2004). The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Simon & Schuster.
Gananath Obeyesekere (2002). Imagining Karma: Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth. University of California Press.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith (1963). The Meaning and End of Religion. New York, Macmillan.
Richard F. Gombrich (1990). Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History From Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Philosophy East and West 40 (2):251-253.
Robert Goldman (1985). Karma, Guilt, and Buried Memories: Public Fantasy and Private Reality in Traditional India. Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (3):413-425.
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