David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):147- (1966)
"Adaptation" has several meanings which have often been confused, including relations, processes, states, and intrinsic properties. It is used in comparative and historical contexts. "Adaptation" and "environment" may designate probabilistic concepts. Recognition of these points refutes arguments for the notions that: 1) all organisms are perfectly adapted; 2) organisms cannot be ill-adapted and survive or well-adapted and die; 3) adaptation is necessarily relative to the environment; 4) change in environment is necessary for evolution; 5) preadaptation implies teleology. Such notions are associated with metaphysical ideas, and may affect the thinking of biologists
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Mario Bunge (1981). Biopopulations, Not Biospecies, Are Individuals and Evolve. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):284.
Michael T. Ghiselin (1981). Categories, Life, and Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):269.
Rebecca K. Jones & Anne D. Pick (1981). Categorization and Affordances. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):292.
John C. Malone (1981). A Fourth Approach to the Study of Learning: Are “Processes” Really Necessary? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (1):151.
Stephen P. Schwartz (1981). Natural Kinds. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):301.
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