David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):147- (1966)
"Adaptation" has several meanings which have often been confused, including relations, processes, states, and intrinsic properties. It is used in comparative and historical contexts. "Adaptation" and "environment" may designate probabilistic concepts. Recognition of these points refutes arguments for the notions that: 1) all organisms are perfectly adapted; 2) organisms cannot be ill-adapted and survive or well-adapted and die; 3) adaptation is necessarily relative to the environment; 4) change in environment is necessary for evolution; 5) preadaptation implies teleology. Such notions are associated with metaphysical ideas, and may affect the thinking of biologists
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Timothy D. Johnston (1981). Contrasting Approaches to a Theory of Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (1):125.
Michael T. Ghiselin (1981). Categories, Life, and Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):269.
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Janet L. Lachman & Roy Lachman (1981). General Process Theory, Ecology, and Animal-Human Continuity: A Cognitive Perspective. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (1):149.
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