David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophy of Science 50 (2):296-308 (1983)
The question is raised, what is going on when there is a tendency for something to happen, but it does not happen. A conspicuous case is that in which there is an equilibrium between opposing forces. One answer, given, for example, by Anscombe and Geach, Harre, and Bhaskar, is that such tendencies are in a sense real, though not manifest. The other answer, given, for example, by Braithwaite and Mackie, is that statements of tendencies are conditional statements about what is manifest but ones in which some antecedents are not specified. The first of these answers is criticized and the second defended
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Steve Fleetwood (2009). The Ontology of Things, Properties and Powers. Journal of Critical Realism 8 (3):343-366.
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