Comparative Assessments of Justice, Political Feasibility, and Ideal Theory

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):39-56 (2012)
Abstract
What should our theorizing about social justice aim at? Many political philosophers think that a crucial goal is to identify a perfectly just society. Amartya Sen disagrees. In The Idea of Justice, he argues that the proper goal of an inquiry about justice is to undertake comparative assessments of feasible social scenarios in order to identify reforms that involve justice-enhancement, or injustice-reduction, even if the results fall short of perfect justice. Sen calls this the “comparative approach” to the theory of justice. He urges its adoption on the basis of a sustained critique of the former approach, which he calls “transcendental.” In this paper I pursue two tasks, one critical and the other constructive. First, I argue that Sen’s account of the contrast between the transcendental and the comparative approaches is not convincing, and second, I suggest what I take to be a broader and more plausible account of comparative assessments of justice. The core claim is that political philosophers should not shy away from the pursuit of ambitious theories of justice (including, for example, ideal theories of perfect justice), although they should engage in careful consideration of issues of political feasibility bearing on their practical implementation.
Keywords Amartya Sen  Justice  Ideal and nonideal theory  Feasibility  Capabilities
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References found in this work BETA
Joshua Cohen & Charles Sabel (2006). Extra Rempublicam Nulla Justitia? Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (2):147–175.
Pablo Gilabert (2011). Feasibility and Socialism. Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (1):52-63.

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