David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):237-250 (2012)
In several papers, Hubert Dreyfus has used chess as a paradigmatic example of how experts act intuitively, rarely using deliberation when selecting actions, while individuals that are only competent rely on analytic and deliberative thought. By contrast, Montero and Evans (Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10:175–194, 2011 ) argue that intuitive aspects of chess are actually rational, in the sense that actions can be justified. In this paper, I show that both Dreyfus’s and Montero and Evans’s views are too extreme, and that expertise in chess, and presumably in other domains, depends on a combination of intuitive thinking and deliberative search, both mediated by perceptual processes. There is more to expertise than just rational thought. I further contend that both sides ignore emotions, which are important in acquiring and maintaining expertise. Finally, I argue that experimental data and first-person data, which are sometimes presented as irreconcilable in the phenomenology literature, actually lead to similar conclusions.
|Keywords||Action Chess Deliberation Expertise Hubert Dreyfus Intuition Skill|
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References found in this work BETA
Merim Bilalić, Peter McLeod & Fernand Gobet (2009). Specialization Effect and Its Influence on Memory and Problem Solving in Expert Chess Players. Cognitive Science 33 (6):1117-1143.
Merim Bilalić, Peter McLeod & Fernand Gobet (2008). Why Good Thoughts Block Better Ones: The Mechanism of the Pernicious Einstellung (Set) Effect. Cognition 108 (3):652-661.
Christopher F. Chabris & Eliot S. Hearst (2003). Visualization, Pattern Recognition, and Forward Search: Effects of Playing Speed and Sight of the Position on Grandmaster Chess Errors. Cognitive Science 27 (4):637-648.
Hubert L. Dreyfus (2007). Response to McDowell. Inquiry 50 (4):371 – 377.
Hubert L. Dreyfus (2007). The Return of the Myth of the Mental. Inquiry 50 (4):352 – 365.
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