Additivity and the Units of Selection

Abstract
"Additive variance in fitness" is an important concept in the formal apparatus of population genetics. Wimsatt and Lloyd have argued that this concept can also be used to decide the "unit of selection" in an evolutionary process. The paper argues that the proposed criteria of Wimsatt and Lloyd are ambiguous, and several interpretations of their views are presented. It is argued that none of these interpretations provide acceptable criteria for deciding units of selection. The reason is that additive variance in fitness can be both a cause of evolution, but also a byproduct of selection at another level.
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Ben Goertzel (1992). What is Hierarchical Selection? Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):27-33.
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