International variation in ethics committee requirements: comparisons across five Westernised nations [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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BMC Medical Ethics 3 (1):1-8 (2002)
Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel to considerable amendments designed to minimise participant harm in New Zealand. Assessment of minimal risk is a complex and unreliable estimation further compounded by insufficient information on probabilities of particular individuals suffering harm. Estimating potential benefits/ risks ratio and protecting participants' autonomy similarly are not straightforward exercises. Summary Safeguarding moral/humane principles should be balanced with promotion of ethical research which does not impede research posing minimal risk to participants. In ensuring that ethical standards are met and research has scientific merit, ethics committees have obligations to participants (to meet their rights and protect them from harm); to society (to ensure good quality research is conducted); and to researchers (to treat their proposals with just consideration and respect). To facilitate meeting all these obligations, the preferable focus should be promotion of ethical research, rather than the prevention of unethical research, which inevitably results in the impediment of researchers from doing their work. How the ethical principles should be applied and balanced requires further consideration.
|Keywords||info:mesh/Israel info:mesh/Behavioral Research Behavioral Research Canada Child Child Abuse, Sexual Cross-Cultural Comparison Ethical Review Ethics Committees, Research Great Britain Human Experimentation Humans Informed Consent Israel New Zealand Personal Autonomy Research Design Risk Assessment United States info:mesh/United States info:mesh/Informed Consent info:mesh/Great Britain info:mesh/Ethical Review info:mesh/Child info:mesh/Research Design info:mesh/Humans info:mesh/Ethics Committees, Research info:mesh/New Zealand info:mesh/Personal Autonomy info:mesh/Cross-Cultural Comparison info:mesh/Child Abuse, Sexual info:mesh/Risk Assessment info:mesh/Canada info:mesh/Human Experimentation|
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Citations of this work BETA
Cathal T. Gallagher, Lisa J. McDonald & Niamh P. McCormack (2014). Undergraduate Research Involving Human Subjects Should Not Be Granted Ethical Approval Unless It is Likely to Be of Publishable Quality. HEC Forum 26 (2):169-180.
Kyoko Wada (2011). The Concept of Minimal Risk: The Need for Better Guidance on the Ethics Review Process. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):27 - 29.
Neroli Sheldon & Michelle Wallace (2015). Business Research Ethics: Participant Observer Perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):267-277.
Marlies van Lent, Gerard A. Rongen & Henk J. Out (2014). Shortcomings of Protocols of Drug Trials in Relation to Sponsorship as Identified by Research Ethics Committees: Analysis of Comments Raised During Ethical Review. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):83.
Akira Akabayashi, Brian Taylor Slingsby, Noriko Nagao, Ichiro Kai & Hajime Sato (2008). A Five Year Follow-Up National Study of Ethics Committees in Medical Organizations in Japan. HEC Forum 20 (1):49-60.
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