David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
IN THE PRELUDE to Middlemarch, George Eliot lamented the unfulfilled lives of talented women: Some have felt that these blundering lives are due to the inconvenient indefiniteness with which the Supreme Power has fashioned the natures of women: if there were one level of feminine incompetence as strict as the ability to count three and no more, the social lot of women might be treated with scientific certitude. Eliot goes on to discount the idea of innate limitation, but while she wrote in 1872, the leaders of European anthropometry were trying to measure "with scientific certitude" the inferiority of women. Anthropometry, or measurement of the human body, is not so fashionable a field these days, but it dominated the human sciences for much of the nineteenth century and remained popular until intelligence testing replaced skull measurement as a favored device for making invidious comparisons among races, classes, and sexes. Craniometry, or measurement of the skull, commanded the most attention and respect. Its unquestioned leader, Paul Broca (1824-80), professor of clinical surgery at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, gathered a school of disciples and imitators around himself. Their work, so meticulous and apparently irrefutable, exerted great influence and won high esteem as a jewel of nineteenth-century science. Broca's work seemed particularly invulnerable to refutation. Had he not measured with the most scrupulous care and accuracy? (Indeed, he had. I have the greatest respect for Broca's meticulous procedure. His numbers are sound. But science is an inferential exercise, not a catalog of facts. Numbers, by themselves, specify nothing. All depends upon what you do with them.) Broca depicted himself as an apostle of objectivity, a man who bowed before facts and cast aside superstition and sentimentality. He declared that "there is no faith, however respectable, no interest, however legitimate, which must not accommodate itself to the progress of human knowledge and bend before truth." Women, like it or not, had smaller brains than men and, therefore, could not equal them in intelligence..
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
No categories specified
(categorize this paper)
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library||
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Barbara Imber And Nancy Tuana (1988). Feminist Perspectives on Science. Hypatia 3 (1):139-155.
Similar books and articles
Eva Turner (2001). The Case for Responsibility of the IT Industry to Promote Equality for Women in Computing. Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2):247-260.
E. Thomson (2001). Physiology, Hygiene and the Entry of Women to the Medical Profession in Edinburgh C. 1869-C. 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (1):105-126.
Kathleen Wider (1986). Women Philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle. Hypatia 1 (1):21 - 62.
Deborah A. O’Neil, Margaret M. Hopkins & Diana Bilimoria (2008). Women's Careers at the Start of the 21st Century: Patterns and Paradoxes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4):727 - 743.
A. O'Neil Deborah, M. Hopkins Margaret & Diana Bilimoria (2008). Women's Careers at the Start of the 21st Century: Patterns and Paradoxes. Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4).
Deborah A. O'Neil, Margaret M. Hopkins & Diana Bilimoria (2008). Women's Careers at the Start of the 21st Century: Patterns and Paradoxes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4):727 - 743.
Stephen G. Post (1990). Women and Elderly Parents: Moral Controversy in an Aging Society. Hypatia 5 (1):83 - 89.
Anna C. Mastroianni, Ruth R. Faden & Daniel D. Federman (eds.) (1994). Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies. National Academy Press.
Luce Irigaray (2007). Je, Tu, Nous: Toward a Culture of Difference: With a Personal Note by the Author. Routledge.
Sue V. Rosser (1987). Feminist Scholarship in the Sciences: Where Are We Now and When Can We Expect A Theoretical Breakthrough? Hypatia 2 (3):5 - 17.
Eva Feder Kittay (1988). Woman as Metaphor. Hypatia 3 (2):63 - 86.
Shirley Castelnuovo (1998). Feminism and the Female Body: Liberating the Amazon Within. L. Rienner Publishers.
Catherine Mckeen (2006). Why Women Must Guard and Rule in Plato's Kallipolis. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):527–548.
Jennifer A. Parks (2004). Grin and Bare It. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (1):45-53.
Added to index2010-09-27
Total downloads35 ( #46,764 of 1,096,498 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #238,630 of 1,096,498 )
How can I increase my downloads?