David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):16- (2012)
Background: The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations.DiscussionWe review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models.SummaryWe conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented.
|Keywords||Animal Biological complexity Ethics Evolution Law Nuremberg code Species variation|
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References found in this work BETA
Niall Shanks, Ray Greek & Jean Greek (2009). Are Animal Models Predictive for Humans? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4 (1):2.
Ray Greek & Jean Greek (2010). Is the Use of Sentient Animals in Basic Research Justifiable? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 5 (1):14.
Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1994). Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (3):195 – 210.
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