David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Asian Philosophy 20 (1):1 – 25 (2010)
In the philosophy of Confucius, the concept _li_ is both central and elusive. While it is often translated 'ritual' or 'the rites,' I argue that there are numerous significant ways in which _li_ is as much an internal property of individuals as it is an external set of rules or norms. I discuss _li_ as deference, as developed dispositions, as embodied intelligence, and as personalized exemplary conduct. Finally, reflecting on the work of Fingarette, and Hall and Ames, as well as Wilson's analysis of their work, I argue that the external _aspect_ of _li_, although reasonably understood under the rubric of 'traditional norms,' may nonetheless legitimately evolve, and that this coheres well with the notion that an internal sense-of-ritual is integral to the meaning of _li_
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References found in this work BETA
Roger T. Ames & Henry Rosemont, Jr (1999). The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation. Ballantine.
D. C. Lau (ed.) (2000). Confucius: The Analects. Columbia University Press.
David L. Hall & Roger T. Ames (1991). Thinking Through Confucius. Philosophy East and West 41 (2):241-254.
Kwong-loi Shun (1997). Mencius and Early Chinese Thought. Stanford University Press.
Herbert Fingarette (1972). Confucius--The Secular as Sacred. New York,Harper & Row.
Citations of this work BETA
Katrin Froese (2014). The Comic Character of Confucius. Asian Philosophy 24 (4):295-312.
Charlene Tan (2015). Beyond Rote-Memorisation: Confucius’ Concept of Thinking. Educational Philosophy and Theory 47 (5):428-439.
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