David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Animal Ethics 1 (2):122-131 (2011)
Skeptics of the moral case against industrial farming often assert that harm to animals in industrial systems is limited to isolated instances of abuse that do not reflect standard practice and thus do not merit criticism of the industry at large. I argue that even if skeptics are correct that abuse is the exception rather than the rule, they must still answer for two additional varieties of serious harm to animals that are pervasive in industrial systems: procedural harm and institutional oppression. That procedural and institutional harms create conditions under which abuse is virtually inevitable only increases the skeptic's burden.
|Keywords||animal abuse animal agriculture animal cruelty concentrated animal feeding operation CAFO harm industrial farming institutional oppression|
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References found in this work BETA
Tzachi Zamir (2007). Ethics and the Beast: A Speciesist Argument for Animal Liberation. Princeton University Press.
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