Varieties of Harm to Animals in Industrial Farming

Journal of Animal Ethics 1 (2):122-131 (2011)
Abstract
Skeptics of the moral case against industrial farming often assert that harm to animals in industrial systems is limited to isolated instances of abuse that do not reflect standard practice and thus do not merit criticism of the industry at large. I argue that even if skeptics are correct that abuse is the exception rather than the rule, they must still answer for two additional varieties of serious harm to animals that are pervasive in industrial systems: procedural harm and institutional oppression. That procedural and institutional harms create conditions under which abuse is virtually inevitable only increases the skeptic's burden.
Keywords animal abuse  animal agriculture  animal cruelty  concentrated animal feeding operation  CAFO  harm  industrial farming  institutional oppression
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