Topoi 23 (2) (2004)
|Abstract||It is almost universally acknowledged that risks have to be weighed against benefits, but there are different ways to perform the weighing. In conventional risk analysis, collectivist risk-weighing is the standard. This means that an option is accepted if the sum of all individual benefits outweighs the sum of all individual risks. In practices originating in clinical medicine, such as ethical appraisals of clinical trials, individualist risk-weighing is the standard. This implies a much stricter criterion for risk acceptance, namely that the risk to which each individual is exposed should be outweighed by benefits for that same individual. The different choices of risk-weighing methods in different policy areas seem to have emerged from traditional thought patterns and social relations, rather than from explicit deliberations on possible justifications for the alternative ways to weigh risks against benefits. It is not obvious how the prevalent differences in risk-weighing practices can be reconstructed in terms of consistent underlying principles of preventive health or social priority-setting.|
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||No categories specified (fix it)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
Douglas MacLean (1982). Quantification, Regulation, and Risk Assessment. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:243 - 260.
Charles Weijer, The Ethical Analysis of Risks and Potential Benefits in Human Subjects Research: History, Theory, and Implications for U.S. Regulation.
Janet Malek (2007). Understanding Risks and Benefits in Research on Reproductive Genetic Technologies. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (4):339 – 358.
Alan Petersen & Alison Anderson (2007). A Question of Balance or Blind Faith?: Scientists' and Science Policymakers' Representations of the Benefits and Risks of Nanotechnologies. NanoEthics 1 (3).
Béatrice Rey (2003). Total and Partial Bivariate Risk Premia: An Extension. Theory and Decision 55 (1):59-69.
Lantz Miller (1998). Filling the Gaps in the Risks Vs. Benefits of Mammalian Adult-Cell Cloning: Taking Bernard Rollin's Philosophy its Next Step. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (1):1-16.
E. Marchant Gary, J. Sylvester Douglas & W. Abbott Kenneth (2008). Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology. Nanoethics 2 (1).
Gary E. Marchant, Douglas J. Sylvester & Kenneth W. Abbott (2008). Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology. NanoEthics 2 (1).
Sven Ove Hansson (2006). Economic (Ir)Rationality in Risk Analysis. Economics and Philosophy 22 (2):231-241.
Annette Rid & David Wendler (2011). A Framework for Risk-Benefit Evaluations in Biomedical Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (2).
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads25 ( #49,501 of 548,973 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #37,438 of 548,973 )
How can I increase my downloads?