|Abstract||Despite the statement by Jablonka and Lamb quoted above, evolutionary theorists tend to agree with Frank that there is a unifying mathematical formulation of evolutionary change, known as the Price Equation or Price Theorem (Frank 1995, 1997; Price 1970, 1972; Rice 2004). This equation has been instrumental for the development of evolutionary theory, in particular with respect to kin and multi-level selection (Frank 1998; Gardner 2008; Okasha 2006). The power of the Price Equation is that it does not make any assumptions regarding the kind of entities that evolve or the mechanisms of inheritance. Consequently, the Price Equation could provide a framework for comparing evolution under different types of inheritance mechanisms, and thereby quantify the implications of non-genetic inheritance for evolutionary theory. In this paper, we explore to what extent the Price Equation can help us conceptualize differences between inheritance systems and illustrate their effects on the rate and direction of phenotypic change|
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