Calvin and Bernard on Freedom and Necessity: A Reply to Brümmer

Religious Studies 30 (4):457 - 465 (1994)
Abstract
It is argued that Calvin does not veer between two incompatible accounts of grace, freedom and necessity in "Institutes II". 2, but presents a consistent position. The consistency is evident once it is seen that Calvin carefully distinguished between necessity and compulsion. For him not all necessitated acts are compelled, but all human acts which are the outcome of efficacious divine grace are necessitated by that grace. Because Calvin is consistent, there is no need to suppose that he has mistaken the causal sufficiency of divine saving grace for its causal importance.
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    Seth Benardete (2007). Freedom : Grace and Necessity. In Richard L. Velkley (ed.), Freedom and the Human Person. Catholic University of America Press.
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