Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):443-466 (2008)
|Abstract||The aim of this article is to investigate whether choosing the appropriate referring expression requires taking into account the hearer’s perspective, as is predicted under some versions of bidirectional Optimality Theory but is unexpected under other versions. We did this by comparing the results of 25 young and 25 elderly adults on an elicitation task based on eight different picture stories, and a comprehension task based on eight similar written stories. With respect to the elicitation task, we found that elderly adults produce pronouns significantly more often than young adults when referring to the old topic in the presence of a new topic. With respect to the comprehension task, no significant differences were found between elderly and young adults. These results support the hypothesis that speakers optimize bidirectionally and take into account hearers when selecting a referring expression. If the use of a pronoun will lead to an unintended interpretation by the hearer, the speaker will use an unambiguous definite noun phrase instead. Because elderly adults are more limited in their processing capacities, as is indicated by their smaller working memory capacity, as speakers they will not always be able to reason about the hearer’s choices. As a result, they frequently produce non-recoverable pronouns.|
|Keywords||Bidirectional Optimality Theory Discourse structure Language comprehension Language production Referring expressions|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
|Through your library||Configure|
Similar books and articles
Philippe Vindras & Edouard Gentaz (2001). Do Adults Make a-Not-B Errors in Pointing? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):68-70.
Imtiaz H. Khan, Kees van Deemter & Graeme Ritchie (2011). Managing Ambiguity in Reference Generation: The Role of Surface Structure. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):211-231.
Géraldine Legendre & Paul Smolensky (2012). On the Asymmetrical Difficulty of Acquiring Person Reference in French: Production Versus Comprehension. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (1):7-30.
Indre V. Viskontas, Keith J. Holyoak & Barbara J. Knowlton (2005). Relational Integration in Older Adults. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):390 – 410.
Daphna Heller, Kristen S. Gorman & Michael K. Tanenhaus (2012). To Name or to Describe: Shared Knowledge Affects Referential Form. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):290-305.
Paul Bloom, What Does Batman Think About Spongebob? Children's Understanding of the Fantasy/Fantasy Distinction.
Cheryl Armon & Theo L. Dawson (1997). Developmental Trajectories in Moral Reasoning Across the Life Span. Journal of Moral Education 26 (4):433-453.
Liesbeth Flobbe, Rineke Verbrugge, Petra Hendriks & Irene Krämer (2008). Children's Application of Theory of Mind in Reasoning and Language. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):417-442.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads8 ( #131,640 of 722,771 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #60,247 of 722,771 )
How can I increase my downloads?