David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Social Philosophy 43 (3):274-306 (2012)
Philosophers who have written about implicit bias have claimed or implied that individuals are not responsible, and therefore not blameworthy, for their implicit biases, and that this is a function of the nature of implicit bias as implicit: below the radar of conscious reflection, out of the control of the deliberating agent, and not rationally revisable in the way many of our reflective beliefs are. I argue that close attention to the findings of empirical psychology, and to the conditions for blameworthiness, does not support these claims. I suggest that the arguments for the claim that individuals are not liable for blame are invalid, and that there is some reason to suppose that individuals are, at least sometimes, liable to blame for the extent to which they are influenced in behaviour and judgment by implicit biases. I also argue against the claim that it is counter-productive to see bias as something for which individuals are blameworthy; rather, understanding implicit bias as something for which we are liable to blame could be constructive
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Citations of this work BETA
Neil Levy (2015). Neither Fish nor Fowl: Implicit Attitudes as Patchy Endorsements. Noûs 49 (4):800-823.
Karen Frost-Arnold (2016). Social Media, Trust, and the Epistemology of Prejudice. Social Epistemology 30 (5-6):513-531.
Ema Sullivan-Bissett (2015). Implicit Bias, Confabulation, and Epistemic Innocence. Consciousness and Cognition 33:548-560.
Jules Holroyd (2015). Implicit Bias, Awareness and Imperfect Cognitions. Consciousness and Cognition 33:511-523.
Michael Brownstein (forthcoming). Attributionism and Moral Responsibility for Implicit Bias. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-22.
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