|Abstract||Heuristic programming was the ﬁrst area in which AI methods were tested. The favourite case-studies were fairly simple toyproblems, such as cryptarithmetic, games, such as checker or chess, and formal problems, such as logic or geometry theorem-proving. These problems are well-deﬁned, roughly speaking, at least in comparison to real-life problems, and as such have played the role of Drosophila in early AI. In this chapter I will investigate the origins of heuristic programming and the shift to more knowledge-based and real-life problem solving.|
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