Is symmetrical communication ethical and effective?

Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):333-352 (2004)
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to explore two questions:(1) Is symmetrical communication in public relations practice inherently ethical?(2) Does symmetrical communication contribute to public relations effectiveness and organizational effectiveness? Three surveys are undertaken to test seven research hypotheses for the purpose of cross-validating research findings. The results suggest that symmetrical communication is inherently ethical. Moreover, symmetrical communication indeed contributes to several performance measures, which include positive market performance, overall organizational effectiveness, conflict resolution, crisis management, favorable organizational reputation, and positive media exposure, with the last two measures only partially supported.
Keywords symmetrical communication  public relations  ethical communication  public relations effectiveness  organizational effectiveness
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