David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophical Studies 160 (2):209-222 (2012)
Can a person ever occurrently believe p and yet have the simultaneous, occurrent belief q that this very belief that p is false? Surely not, most would say: that description of a person’s epistemic economy seems to misunderstand the very concept of belief. In this paper I question this orthodox assumption. There are, I suggest, cases where we have a first-order mental state m that involves taking the world to be a certain way, yet although we ourselves acknowledge that we are in m, we reflectively disavow m’s propositional content. If such an epistemic stance is possible, does this irrationally persistent first-order state m really deserve the title of belief, or should it instead be classified under some other, less doxastic appellation? I argue in this paper that the belief terminology is warranted, and thus, that we can be correctly described as having the second-order belief that a specific first-order belief that we nonetheless continue to hold is false. In such cases, our first-order state is what I refer to as a naughty belief. Like naughty toddlers, naughty beliefs are recalcitrant in the face of epistemic authority.
|Keywords||Belief Epistemology Philosophy of mind Moore’s paradox|
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Citations of this work BETA
Eric Mandelbaum (2013). Against Alief. Philosophical Studies 165 (1):197-211.
Jason D'Cruz (2015). Rationalization, Evidence, and Pretense. Ratio 28 (3):318-331.
Michael Brownstein & Eliot Michaelson (2016). Doing Without Believing: Intellectualism, Knowledge-How, and Belief-Attribution. Synthese 193 (9):2815–2836.
Maura Tumulty (2014). Managing Mismatch Between Belief and Behavior. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (3):261-292.
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