David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Environmental Ethics 2 (1):81-88 (1980)
If species are the things that evolve at least in large part through the action of natural selection, then both genetic and phenotypic variability are essential to biological species. If all species are variable, then Homo sapiens must be variable. Hence, it is very unlikely that the human species as a biological species can be characterized by a set of invariable traits. It might be the case that at this moment in evolutionary history, all human beings happen to possess a particular set (or unimodal cluster) of traits, but if so, this will be in large part an evolutionary accident. As a result, anyone who proposes to base anything, including ethics, on human nature is basing it on historical happenstance.
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Bence Nanay (2010). Population Thinking as Trope Nominalism. Synthese 177 (1):91 - 109.
Matthew H. Haber (2012). How to Misidentify a Type Specimen. Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):767-784.
Jay Odenbaugh (forthcoming). Nothing in Ethics Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution? Natural Goodness, Normativity, and Naturalism. Synthese:1-25.
Edouard Machery (2012). Reconceptualizing Human Nature: Response to Lewens. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):475-478.
Maria Kronfeldner, Neil Roughley & Georg Toepfer (2014). Recent Work on Human Nature: Beyond Traditional Essences. Philosophy Compass 9 (9):642-652.
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