David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Developing World Bioethics 9 (3):111-118 (2009)
Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.
|Keywords||fair trade developing world bioethics surrogacy bioethics international|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Jeffrey Kirby (2014). Transnational Gestational Surrogacy: Does It Have to Be Exploitative? American Journal of Bioethics 14 (5):24-32.
Jyotsna Agnihotri Gupta (2012). Reproductive Biocrossings: Indian Egg Donors and Surrogates in the Globalized Fertility Market. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):25-51.
Serene J. Khader (2013). Intersectionality and the Ethics of Transnational Commercial Surrogacy. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):68-90.
Louise Anna Helena Ramskold & Marcus Paul Posner (2013). Commercial Surrogacy: How Provisions of Monetary Remuneration and Powers of International Law Can Prevent Exploitation of Gestational Surrogates. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):397-402.
Similar books and articles
Vanessa E. Munro (2001). Surrogacy and the Construction of the Maternal-Foetal Relationship: The Feminist Dilemma Examined. Res Publica 7 (1):13-37.
Jason K. M. Hanna (2010). Revisiting Child-Based Objections to Commercial Surrogacy. Bioethics 24 (7):341-347.
Jennifer Damelio & Kelly Sorensen (2008). Enhancing Autonomy in Paid Surrogacy. Bioethics 22 (5):269–277.
Henrik Kjeldgaard Jorgensen (2000). Paternalism, Surrogacy, and Exploitation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (1):39--58.
Henrik Kjeldgaard Jørgensen (2000). Paternalism, Surrogacy, and Exploitation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (1):39-58.
Brenda M. Baker (1996). A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy. Hypatia 11 (2):34 - 48.
Stephen Wilkinson (2003). The Exploitation Argument Against Commercial Surrogacy. Bioethics 17 (2):169–187.
Yukari Semba, Chiungfang Chang, Hyunsoo Hong, Minori Kokado, Kaori Muto & Ayako Kamisato (2009). Surrogacy: Donor Conception Regulation in Japan. Bioethics 24 (7):348-357.
Kathryn MacKay (2009). An Examination of Exploitation in International Gestational Surrogacy Contracts. Dissertation, McGill University
Added to index2009-06-16
Total downloads103 ( #37,965 of 1,796,192 )
Recent downloads (6 months)12 ( #60,296 of 1,796,192 )
How can I increase my downloads?