David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Utilitas 19 (02):160- (2007)
The contrast typically made between utilitarianism and virtue theory is overdrawn. Utilitarianism is a universal emulator: it implies that we should lie, cheat, steal, even appropriate Aristotle, when that is what brings about the best outcomes. In some cases and in some worlds it is best for us to focus as precisely as possible on individual acts. In other cases and worlds it is best for us to be concerned with character traits. Global environmental change leads to concerns about character because the best results will be produced by generally uncoupling my behavior from that of others. Thus, in this case and in this world, utilitarians should be virtue theorists
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Jessica Nihlén Fahlquist (2009). Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems—Individual or Institutional? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2):109-124.
Avram Hiller (2011). Morally Significant Effects of Ordinary Individual Actions. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):19-21.
Christopher Morgan-Knapp & Charles Goodman (2015). Consequentialism, Climate Harm and Individual Obligations. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (1):177-190.
Stephen M. Gardiner (2011). Rawls and Climate Change: Does Rawlsian Political Philosophy Pass the Global Test? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (2):125-151.
Ronald Sandler (2011). Beware of Averages: A Response to John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):31-33.
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