Structured Pigeonhole Principle, Search Problems and Hard Tautologies

Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (2):619 - 630 (2005)
Abstract
We consider exponentially large finite relational structures (with the universe {0.1}ⁿ) whose basic relations are computed by polynomial size (nO(1)) circuits. We study behaviour of such structures when pulled back by P/poly maps to a bigger or to a smaller universe. In particular, we prove that: 1. If there exists a P/poly map g: {0.1} → {0.1}m, n < m, iterable for a proof system then a tautology (independent of g) expressing that a particular size n set is dominating in a size 2ⁿ tournament is hard for the proof system. 2. The search problem WPHP, decoding RSA or finding a collision in a hashing function can be reduced to finding a size m homogeneous subgraph in a size 22m graph. Further we reduce the proof complexity of a concrete tautology (expressing a Ramsey property of a graph) in strong systems to the complexity of implicit proofs of implicit formulas in weak proof systems
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