David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):2 – 10 (2008)
In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.
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References found in this work BETA
R. Jonsen Albert (2003). The Birth of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
Nicholas Rescher (1969). The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy. Ethics 79 (3):173-186.
Norman Daniels, Donald W. Light & Ronald L. Caplan (1998). Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (4):605.
Nancy S. Jecker (2008). The Role of Standpoint in Justice Theory. Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (2):165-182.
John Frederic Kilner (1990). Who Lives? Who Dies? Ethical Criteria in Patient Selection. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
Citations of this work BETA
Nancy S. Jecker (2013). Justice Between Age Groups: An Objection to the Prudential Lifespan Approach. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):3-15.
Lawrence J. Schneiderman (2011). Rationing Just Medical Care. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (7):7 - 14.
Nancy S. Jecker (2015). Rethinking Rescue Medicine. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (2):12-18.
Kiarash Aramesh (2008). Justice as a Principle of Islamic Bioethics. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):26 – 27.
Andrew Courtwright (2008). The Social Determinants of Health: Moving Beyond Justice. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):16 – 17.
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Larry R. Churchill (1999). Looking to Hume for Justice: On the Utility of Hume's View of Justice for American Health Care Reform. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (4):352 – 364.
Norman Daniels (1985). Just Health Care. Cambridge University Press.
Nancy Jecker (2008). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “A Broader View of Justice”. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):1-2.
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