David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Consciousness and Emotion 4 (2):151-179 (2003)
It has been reported that, on average, most adults recall first memories formed around age 3.5. In general, most first memories are positive. However, whether these first memories tend to be visual or verbal and whether the period for childhood amnesia (CA) is greater for visual or verbal or for positive versus negative memories has not been determined. Because negative, stressful experiences disrupt memory and can injure memory centers such as the hippocampus and amygdala, and since adults who were traumatized or abused during childhood (TA) reportedly suffer memory disturbances, it was hypothesized that those with a history of early trauma might suffer from a lengthier childhood amnesia and form their first recallable memories at a later age as compared to the general population (GP). Because the right hemisphere matures earlier than the language-dominant left hemisphere, and is dominant for visual and emotional memory, as well as the stress reponse, it was hypothesized that first recallable memories would be visual rather than verbal. Lastly, since stress can injure the brain and disrupt memory, it was hypothesized that the traumatized group would demonstrate memory and intellectual disturbances associated with right hemisphere injury as based on WAIS-R, Wechsler Memory Scale, and facial-memory testing. All hypotheses were supported. Positive and visual memories are formed before negative and verbal memories. TA CA offset, on average, is at age 6.1 versus 3.5 for GPs. TA PIQ (performance IQ), short-term visual memory, and facial memory were significantly reduced.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Steven M. Smith (2006). Resolving Repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):534-535.
Anne P. DePrince, Carolyn B. Allard, Hannah Oh & Jennifer J. Freyd (2004). What's in a Name for Memory Errors? Implications and Ethical Issues Arising From the Use of the Term "False Memory" for Errors in Memory for Details. Ethics and Behavior 14 (3):201 – 233.
Christoph Hoerl (1999). Memory, Amnesia, and the Past. Mind and Language 14 (2):227-51.
Alan Baddeley, John P. Aggleton & Martin A. Conway (eds.) (2002). Episodic Memory: New Directions in Research. Oxford University Press.
Charles Scott (1999). Memory of Time in the Light of Flesh. Continental Philosophy Review 32 (4):421-432.
George A. Bonanno (2006). The Illusion of Repressed Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):515-516.
Adam Kolber (2008). Freedom of Memory Today. Neuroethics 1 (2):145-148.
Mark L. Howe (2000). Consciousness, Memory, and Development. In , The Fate of Early Memories: Developmental Science and the Retention of Childhood Experiences. American Psychological Association. 105-118.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads16 ( #118,429 of 1,679,344 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #183,792 of 1,679,344 )
How can I increase my downloads?