David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2 & 3):78 – 98 (2001)
As a relatively young profession, public relations seeks a realistic ethics foundation. A continuing debate in public relations has pitted journalistic/objectivity ethics against the advocacy ethics that may be more appropriate in an adversarial society. As the journalistic/objectivity influence has waned, the debate has evolved, pitting the advocacy/adversarial foundation against the two-way symmetrical model of public relations, which seeks to build consensus and holds that an organization itself, not an opposing public, sometimes may need to change to build a productive relationship. A similar battle between adversarial advocacy and symmetry occurred during the emergence of rhetoric in the Athens of the 4th century B.C. Plato and Aristotle favored adversarial/advocacy rhetoric, whereas Isocrates favored a symmetrical rhetoric. Four criteria of comparison of those rhetorics are examined: success of the respective schools, success of the respective graduates, the evaluation of later Roman rhetoricians, and the impact on the future of education. History shows that Isocrates's symmetrical rhetoric clearly was more effective than its adversarial/advocacy rivals. Recent studies of the two-way symmetrical model concur, indicating that it may well be the most effective foundation for public relations ethics.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Plato (2009). Phaedrus. OUP Oxford.
Plato (2004/2008). Gorgias. ePenguin.
Kenneth Burke (1969). A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Sherry Baker (1999). Five Baselines for Justification in Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 14 (2):69 – 81.
John F. Healy & G. Kennedy (1966). The Art of Persuasion in Greece. Journal of Hellenic Studies 86:189.
Citations of this work BETA
Andreas Spahn (2012). And Lead Us (Not) Into Persuasion…? Persuasive Technology and the Ethics of Communication. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (4):633-650.
Charles Marsh (2014). Public Relations as a Quest for Justice: Resource Dependency, Reputation, and the Philosophy of David Hume. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 29 (4):210-224.
Similar books and articles
Thomas H. Bivins (1987). Applying Ethical Theory to Public Relations. Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3):195 - 200.
Sherry Baker (2002). The Theoretical Ground for Public Relations Practice and Ethics: A Koehnian Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 35 (3):191 - 205.
Rachel Barney (2010). Gorgias' Defense: Plato and His Opponents on Rhetoric and the Good. Southern Journal of Philosophy 48 (1):95-121.
Kathy Fitzpatrick & Candace Gauthier (2001). Toward a Professional Responsibility Theory of Public Relations Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2 & 3):193 – 212.
Yi-Hui Huang (2001). Should a Public Relations Code of Ethics Be Enforced? Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):259 - 270.
Thomas H. Bivins (1989). Are Public Relations Texts Covering Ethics Adequately? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):39 – 52.
Shannon A. Bowen (2010). An Overview of the Public Relations Function. Business Expert Press.
Genevieve McBride (1989). Ethical Thought in Public Relations History: Seeking a Relevant Perspective. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):5 – 20.
Charles Marsh (2001). Public Relations Ethics: Contrasting Models From the Rhetorics of Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2-3):78-98.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads18 ( #150,511 of 1,724,892 )
Recent downloads (6 months)3 ( #210,938 of 1,724,892 )
How can I increase my downloads?