Science and values in risk assessment: The case of deliberate release of genetically engineered organisms [Book Review]

Abstract
To make more responsible decisions regarding risk and to understand disagreements and controversies in risk assessments, it is important to know how and where values are infused into risk assessment and how they are embedded in the conclusions. In this article an attempt is made to disentangle the relationship of science and values in decision-making concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. This exercise in applied philosophy of science is based on Helen Longino's contextual empiricism which attempts to reconcile the objectivity of science with its social and cultural construction. Longino distinguishes different levels of research on which values apparently contextual with respect to a given research program can shape the knowledge emerging from that program. Her scheme is applied for locating and identifying the values that affect environment risk assessments of the field experiments with GMOs. The article concludes with some provisional suggestions for the decision process and the role of scientists in it.
Keywords applied philosophy of science  science in policy  risk assessment  fact-value dichotomy  biotechnology  genetically modified organisms  deliberate release
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Carl F. Cranor (1988). Some Public Policy Problems with the Science of Carcinogen Risk Assessment. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:467 - 488.
Helen E. Longino (1986). What's Really Wrong with Quantitative Risk Assessment? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:376 - 383.
Deborah G. Mayo (1988). Toward a More Objective Understanding of the Evidence of Carcinogenic Risk. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:489 - 503.
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