On regular reduced products

Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (3):1169-1177 (2002)
Abstract
Assume $\langle \aleph_0, \aleph_1 \rangle \rightarrow \langle \lambda, \lambda^+ \rangle$ . Assume M is a model of a first order theory T of cardinality at most λ+ in a language L(T) of cardinality $\leq \lambda$ . Let N be a model with the same language. Let Δ be a set of first order formulas in L(T) and let D be a regular filter on λ. Then M is $\Delta-embeddable$ into the reduced power $N^\lambda/D$ , provided that every $\Delta-existential$ formula true in M is true also in N. We obtain the following corollary: for M as above and D a regular ultrafilter over $\lambda, M^\lambda/D$ is $\lambda^{++}-universal$ . Our second result is as follows: For $i < \mu$ let Mi and Ni be elementarily equivalent models of a language which has cardinality $\leq \lambda$ . Suppose D is a regular filter on λ and $\langle \aleph_0, \aleph_1 \rangle \rightarrow \langle \lambda, \lambda^+ \rangle$ holds. We show that then the second player has a winning strategy in the $Ehrenfeucht-Fra\ddot{i}ss\acute{e}$ game of length λ+ on $\prod_i M_i/D$ and $\prod_i N_i/D$ . This yields the following corollary: Assume GCH and λ regular (or just $\langle \aleph_0, \aleph_1 \rangle \rightarrow \langle \lambda, \lambda^+ \rangle$ and 2λ = λ+). For L, Mi and Ni be as above, if D is a regular filter on λ, then $\prod_i M_i/D \cong \prod_i N_i/D$
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