Captive Bears in Human–Animal Welfare Conflict: A Case Study of Bile Extraction on Asia's Bear Farms [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (1):55-77 (2012)
Bear bile has long been used in the Asian traditional pharmacopoeia. Bear farming first started in China ~30 years ago in terms of reducing the number of poached bears and ensuring the supply of bear bile. Approximately 13,000 bears are today captivated on Asia’s bear farms: their teeth are broken and the claws are also pulled out for the sake of human safety; the bears are imprisoned in squeeze cages for years; and a catheter is daily inserted into a bear’s gall bladder or a tube is implanted inside its body in order to collect the dripped bile—captive bears moan in severe pain whenever the bile is extracted. When the bears cannot produce sufficient bile, they are often left to die of starvation. It must be impossible to justify the bile extraction from living bears because (1) medicinal/herbal alternatives are similar to bear bile; (2) there is no evidence to suggest that bear farming has any beneficial effects on wild bear populations; and (3) ethical problems lie not only in the painful bile extraction but also the whole lifecycle of captive bears. In conclusion, human welfare (health care) based on traditional medicine is upheld by sacrificing bear welfare. Since a trial calculation suggests that it is economically unfeasible to keep a proper balance between bear welfare and the traditional pharmacopeia, the cultivation of herbal alternatives seems to be a possible solution to phase out bear faming and maintain the practice of traditional medicine in Asia
|Keywords||Captive bear Bile EU resolution Traditional medicine Pain Welfare|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Clifton P. Flynn (2001). Acknowledging the "Zoological Connection": A Sociological Analysis of Animal Cruelty. Society and Animals 9 (1):71-87.
David DeGrazia (2002). Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
David J. Mellor (2009). The Sciences of Animal Welfare. Wiley-Blackwell.
Jacob Metcalf (2008). Intimacy Without Proximity: Encountering Griz as a Companion Species. Environmental Philosophy 5 (2):99-128.
Linda Wetzel (2002). On Types and Words. Journal of Philosophical Research 27:239-265.
Theofano Vetouli, Vonne Lund & Brigitte Kaufmann (2012). Farmers' Attitude Towards Animal Welfare Aspects and Their Practice in Organic Dairy Calf Rearing: A Case Study in Selected Nordic Farms. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (3):349-364.
Mary Lee A. Jensvold, Jacquelyn C. Buckner & Gina B. Stadtner (2010). Caregiver–Chimpanzee Interactions with Species-Specific Behaviors. Interaction Studies 11 (3):396-409.
Christine Leeb (2011). The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface Between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (2):173-183.
Ian Angus (2012). Limits to Social Representation of Value: Response to Leroy Little Bear. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (4):537-548.
Sue L. Cataldi (2002). Animals and the Concept of Dignity: Critical Reflections on a Circus Performance. Ethics and the Environment 7 (2):104-126.
Rita Wong (2012). Cultivating Respectful Relations: A Response to Leroy Little Bear. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (4):528-536.
David Hull (1992). Testing Philosophical Claims About Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:468 - 475.
Dennis Des Chene (2012). Using the Passions. In Martin Pickavé & Lisa Shapiro (eds.), Emotion and Cognitive Life in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Oxford University Press
Lennart Nordenfelt (2011). Health and Welfare in Animals and Humans. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (2):139-152.
Norah Martin (2001). Feminist Bioethics and Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (4):431 – 441.
Added to index2010-11-18
Total downloads23 ( #161,235 of 1,793,278 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #344,495 of 1,793,278 )
How can I increase my downloads?