David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Pnas 102 (36):12950-12955 (2005)
Our subjective sensory experiences are thought to be heavily shaped by interactions between expectations and incoming sensory information. However, the neural mechanisms supporting these interactions remain poorly understood. By using combined psychophysical and functional MRI techniques, brain activation related to the intensity of expected pain and experienced pain was characterized. As the magnitude of expected pain increased, activation increased in the thalamus, insula, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and other brain regions. Pain-intensity-related brain activation was identified in a widely distributed set of brain regions but overlapped partially with expectation-related activation in regions, including the anterior insula and ACC. When expected pain was manipulated, expectations of decreased pain powerfully reduced both the subjective experience of pain and activation of pain-related brain regions, such as the primary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, and ACC. These results confirm that a mental representation of an impending sensory event can significantly shape neural processes that underlie the formulation of the actual sensory experience and provide insight as to how positive expectations diminish the severity of chronic disease states
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Manolo Martínez (2011). Imperative Content and the Painfulness of Pain. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (1):67-90.
Similar books and articles
Eric A. Salzen (2002). The Feeling of Pain and the Emotion of Distress. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):471-471.
Mark D. Sullivan (2002). The Meaning of Facial Expressions of Pain Lies in Their Use, Not in Their Reference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):472-473.
C. Richard Chapman (2004). Pain Perception, Affective Mechanisms, and Conscious Experience. In Thomas Hadjistavropoulos & Kenneth D. Craig (eds.), Pain: Psychological Perspectives. 59-85.
Kevin Reuter (2011). Distinguishing the Appearance From the Reality of Pain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (9-10):94-109.
C. R. Chapman, Y. Nakakura & C. N. Chapman (2000). Pain and Folk Theory. Brain and Mind 1 (2):209-222.
Nikola Grahek (1991). Objective and Subjective Aspects of Pain. Philosophical Psychology 4 (2):249-66.
Marshall Devor (2007). Pain, Cortex, and Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):89-90.
Adam J. Kolber (2007). Pain Detection and the Privacy of Subjective Experience. American Journal of Law & Medicine 33 (2&3):433-456.
Kenneth J. Sufka & Michael P. Lynch (2000). Sensations and Pain Processes. Philosophical Psychology 13 (3):299-311.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads31 ( #59,400 of 1,100,032 )
Recent downloads (6 months)20 ( #10,312 of 1,100,032 )
How can I increase my downloads?