David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Neuroethics 4 (1):51-64 (2011)
This article will examine how the notion of emotional authenticity is intertwined with the notions of naturalness and artificiality in the context of the recent debates about ‘neuro-enhancement’ and ‘neuro-psychopharmacology.’ In the philosophy of mind, the concept of authenticity plays a key role in the discussion of the emotions. There is a widely held intuition that an artificial means will always lead to an inauthentic result. This article, however, proposes that artificial substances do not necessarily result in inauthentic emotions. The literature provided by the philosophy of mind on this subject usually resorts to thought experiments. On the other hand, the recent literature in applied ethics on ‘enhancement’ provides good reasons to include real world examples. Such case studies reveal that some psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants actually cause people to undergo experiences of authenticity, making them feel ‘like themselves’ for the first time in their lives. Beginning with these accounts, this article suggests three non-naturalist standards for emotions: the authenticity standard, the rationality standard, and the coherence standard. It argues that the authenticity standard is not always the only valid one, but that the other two ways of assessing emotions are also valid, and that they can even have repercussions on the felt authenticity of emotions. In conclusion, it sketches some of the normative implications if not ethical intricacies that accompany the enhancement of emotions
|Keywords||Neuro-enhancement Authenticity Emotions Prozac Naturalness Artificiality|
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References found in this work BETA
Jesse J. Prinz (2004). Gut Reactions: A Perceptual Theory of the Emotions. Oxford University Press.
Peter Goldie (2000). The Emotions: A Philosophical Exploration. Oxford University Press.
Charles Taylor (1992). The Ethics of Authenticity. Harvard University Press.
Bennett W. Helm (2001). Emotional Reason: Deliberation, Motivation, and the Nature of Value. Cambridge University Press.
Jon Elster (2002). [Book Review] Alchemies of the Mind, Rationality and the Emotions. [REVIEW] Ethics 112 (2):371-375.
Citations of this work BETA
F. Kraemer (2013). Authenticity or Autonomy? When Deep Brain Stimulation Causes a Dilemma. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (12):757-760.
Alistair Wardrope (2014). Authenticity and Autonomy in Deep-Brain Stimulation. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (8):563-566.
Ginger A. Hoffman (2013). Treating Yourself as an Object: Self-Objectification and the Ethical Dimensions of Antidepressant Use. Neuroethics 6 (1):165-178.
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L. L. E. Bolt (2007). True to Oneself? Broad and Narrow Ideas on Authenticity in the Enhancement Debate. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (4):285-300.
Alexandre Erler (2011). Does Memory Modification Threaten Our Authenticity? Neuroethics 4 (3):235-249.
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Erik Parens (2005). Authenticity and Ambivalence: Toward Understanding the Enhancement Debate. Hastings Center Report 35 (3):34-41.
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Ineke Bolt & Maartje Schermer (2009). Psychopharmaceutical Enhancers: Enhancing Identity? Neuroethics 2 (2):103-111.
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