David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
American Philosophical Quarterly 48 (4):361 (2011)
God is traditionally taken to be a necessarily existing being who is unsurpassably powerful, knowledgeable, and good. The familiar problem of actual evil claims that the presence of gratuitous suffering in the actual world constitutes evidence against the existence of such a being. In contrast, the problem of possible evil claims that the possibility of bad worlds constitutes evidence against theism. How? It seems plausible to suppose that there are very bad possible worlds. But if God exists in every world, then God exists in those, too. And if God exists in very bad worlds, some say, God is culpable for not ensuring that they are better. In what follows, I consider this argument, survey some responses, and offer a novel solution. Along the way, I argue that theists should maintain that the actual world is a multiverse featuring all and only universes worthy of being created and sustained by God, and – more controversially – I suggest that theists should embrace modal collapse: the claim that this multiverse is the only possible world.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Scott Hill (2014). Giving Up Omnipotence. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (1):97-117.
Klaas J. Kraay (2008). Creation, Actualization and God's Choice Among Possible Worlds. Philosophy Compass 3 (4):854-872.
Klaas J. Kraay (2013). Megill's Multiverse Meta-Argument. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 73 (3):235-241.
Kirk Lougheed (2014). Divine Creation, Modal Collapse, and the Theistic Multiverse. Sophia 53 (4):435-446.
Similar books and articles
Guy Kahane (2011). Should We Want God to Exist? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (3):674-696.
Bradley Monton (2010). Against Multiverse Theodicies. Philo 13 (2):113-135.
Bruce Langtry (2008). God, the Best, and Evil. OUP Oxford.
Mark Ian Thomas Robson (2008). Ontology and Providence in Creation: Taking Ex Nihilo Seriously. Continuum.
Paul Sheehy (2006). Theism and Modal Realism. Religious Studies 42 (3):315-328.
Klaas J. Kraay (2005). William L. Rowe's a Priori Argument for Atheism. Faith and Philosophy 22 (2):211-234.
Klaas J. Kraay (2009). Can God Choose a World at Random? In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave Macmillan
James R. Beebe, Logical Problem of Evil. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Justin P. McBrayer (2010). Skeptical Theism. Philosophy Compass 5 (7):611-623.
Klaas J. Kraay (2010). Theism, Possible Worlds, and the Multiverse. Philosophical Studies 147 (3):355 - 368.
Added to index2009-10-01
Total downloads113 ( #36,326 of 1,934,834 )
Recent downloads (6 months)20 ( #30,620 of 1,934,834 )
How can I increase my downloads?