Grace and Graciousness

Newman Studies Journal 2 (2):6-23 (2005)
For two decades (1859-1879), ultramontane Roman Catholics viewed Newman with suspicion and surreptitiously questioned his orthodoxy; such covert charges were practically impossible to refute. Vindication came only in Newman’s declining years, when Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) named him a cardinal. Such an honor was an irrefutable riposte to Newman’s critics. His elevation to the cardinalate unleashed a torrent of congratulations from religious communities and civic organizations, from personal friends as well as from the general public. This article revisits Newman’s cardinalatial years and samples some of the “Addresses” and messages of congratulation that he received along with his replies
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