David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):294-340 (2001)
This article reports four subliminal perception experiments using the relationship between confidence and accuracy to assess awareness. Subjects discriminated among stimuli and indicated their confidence in each discrimination response. Subjects were classified as being aware of the stimuli if their confidence judgments predicted accuracy and as being unaware if they did not. In the first experiment, confidence predicted accuracy even at stimulus durations so brief that subjects claimed to be performing at chance. This finding indicates that subjects's claims that they are ''just guessing'' should not be accepted as sufficient evidence that they are completely unaware of the stimuli. Experiments 2-4 tested directly for subliminal perception by comparing the minimum exposure duration needed for better than chance discrimination performance against the minimum needed for confidence to predict accuracy. The latter durations were slightly but significantly longer, suggesting that under certain circumstances people can make perceptual discriminations even though the information that was used to make those discriminations is not consciously available
|Keywords||*Awareness *Prediction *Stimulus Discrimination *Subliminal Perception|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Michael I. Posner & C. R. R. Snyder (1975). Attention and Cognitive Control. In Robert L. Solso (ed.), Information Processing and Cognition: The Loyola Symposium. Lawrence Erlbaum
Daniel Holender (1986). Semantic Activation Without Conscious Identification in Dichotic Listening, Parafoveal Vision, and Visual Masking: A Survey and Appraisal. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):1-23.
J. R. Stroop (1935). Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (6):643.
Anne Treisman (1980). A Feature Integration Theory of Attention. Cognitive Psychology 12:97-136.
A. Allport (1988). What Concept of Consciousness? In Anthony J. Marcel & E. Bisiach (eds.), Consciousness in Contemporary Science. Oxford University Press
Citations of this work BETA
Colin W. G. Clifford, Ehsan Arabzadeh & Justin A. Harris (2008). Getting Technical About Awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):54-58.
Eunice Yang, Jan Brascamp, Min-Suk Kang & Randolph Blake (2014). On the Use of Continuous Flash Suppression for the Study of Visual Processing Outside of Awareness. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
Timo Stein & Philipp Sterzer (2014). Unconscious Processing Under Interocular Suppression: Getting the Right Measure. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
Zoltán Dienes & Anil Seth (2010). Gambling on the Unconscious: A Comparison of Wagering and Confidence Ratings as Measures of Awareness in an Artificial Grammar Task☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):674-681.
Brian Maniscalco & Hakwan Lau (2012). A Signal Detection Theoretic Approach for Estimating Metacognitive Sensitivity From Confidence Ratings. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):422-430.
Similar books and articles
Gary D. Fisk & Steven J. Haase (2005). Unconscious Perception or Not? An Evaluation of Detection and Discrimination as Indicators of Awareness. American Journal of Psychology 118 (2):183-212.
Peter R. Killeen (2004). Minding Behavior. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (1):125-147.
M. Massin-Krauss, E. Bacon & Danion J.-M. (2002). Effects of the Benzodiazepine Lorazepam on Monitoring and Control Processes in Semantic Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (1):123-137.
Gilles Dutilh, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Ingmar Visser & Han L. J. van der Maas (2011). A Phase Transition Model for the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Response Time Experiments. Cognitive Science 35 (2):211-250.
Morten Overgaard, Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Optimizing Subjective Measures of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):682-684.
Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2010). Partial Awareness Distinguishes Between Measuring Conscious Perception and Conscious Content: Reply to Dienes and Seth. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1081-1083.
Eamon P. Fulcher & Marianne Hammerl (2001). When All is Considered: Evaluative Learning Does Not Require Contingency Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (4):567-573.
Jamie A. Prowse Turner & Valerie A. Thompson (2009). The Role of Training, Alternative Models, and Logical Necessity in Determining Confidence in Syllogistic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):69 – 100.
Kasper Lippert-rasmussen (2006). The Badness of Discrimination. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (2):167 - 185.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads40 ( #103,189 of 1,906,987 )
Recent downloads (6 months)7 ( #109,520 of 1,906,987 )
How can I increase my downloads?