David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):294-340 (2001)
This article reports four subliminal perception experiments using the relationship between confidence and accuracy to assess awareness. Subjects discriminated among stimuli and indicated their confidence in each discrimination response. Subjects were classified as being aware of the stimuli if their confidence judgments predicted accuracy and as being unaware if they did not. In the first experiment, confidence predicted accuracy even at stimulus durations so brief that subjects claimed to be performing at chance. This finding indicates that subjects's claims that they are ''just guessing'' should not be accepted as sufficient evidence that they are completely unaware of the stimuli. Experiments 2-4 tested directly for subliminal perception by comparing the minimum exposure duration needed for better than chance discrimination performance against the minimum needed for confidence to predict accuracy. The latter durations were slightly but significantly longer, suggesting that under certain circumstances people can make perceptual discriminations even though the information that was used to make those discriminations is not consciously available
|Keywords||*Awareness *Prediction *Stimulus Discrimination *Subliminal Perception|
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Citations of this work BETA
Ryota Kanai, Vincent Walsh & Chia-Huei Tseng (2010). Subjective Discriminability of Invisibility: A Framework for Distinguishing Perceptual and Attentional Failures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1045-1057.
Jeff Miller & Wolf Schwarz (2014). Brain Signals Do Not Demonstrate Unconscious Decision Making: An Interpretation Based on Graded Conscious Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 24 (1):12-21.
Zoltán Dienes & Anil Seth (2010). Gambling on the Unconscious: A Comparison of Wagering and Confidence Ratings as Measures of Awareness in an Artificial Grammar Task☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):674-681.
Stephen M. Fleming & Raymond J. Dolan (2010). Effects of Loss Aversion on Post-Decision Wagering: Implications for Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):352-363.
Elizabeth Irvine (2013). Measures of Consciousness. Philosophy Compass 8 (3):285-297.
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