David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (3):195 – 210 (1994)
Claude Bernard, the father of scientific physiology, believed that if medicine was to become truly scientiifc, it would have to be based on rigorous and controlled animal experiments. Bernard instituted a paradigm which has shaped physiological practice for most of the twentieth century. ln this paper we examine how Bernards commitment to hypothetico-deductivism and determinism led to (a) his rejection of the theory of evolution; (b) his minima/ization of the role of clinical medicine and epidemiological studies; and (c) his conclusion that experiments on nonhuman animals were, "entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man". We examine some negative consequences of Bernardianism for twentieth century medicine, and argue that physio/ogy's continued adherence to Bernardianism has caused it to diverge from the other biological sciences which have become increasingly infused with evolutionary theory.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Gary L. Francione (2007). The Use of Nonhuman Animals in Biomedical Research: Necessity and Justification. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (2):241-248.
Ray Greek, Annalea Pippus & Lawrence Hansen (2012). The Nuremberg Code Subverts Human Health and Safety by Requiring Animal Modeling. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):16-.
Robert C. Jones & Ray Greek (2014). A Review of the Institute of Medicine's Analysis of Using Chimpanzees in Biomedical Research. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):481-504.
Similar books and articles
Andrew Knight (2011). The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments. Palgrave Macmillan.
Donna Yarri (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. Oup Usa.
Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1993). The Intact Systems Argument: Problems with the Standard Defense of Animal Experimentation. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):323-333.
Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1996). The Origin of Speciesism. Philosophy 71 (275):41-.
Julia Tanner (2011). Rowlands, Rawlsian Justice and Animal Experimentation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (5):569-587.
Jac A. A. Swart (2004). The Wild Animal as a Research Animal. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (2):181-197.
David Benatar (1999). Hugh LaFollette and Niall Shanks, Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation:Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation. Ethics 110 (1):207-211.
Mark D. Sullivan (1990). Reconsidering the Wisdom of the Body: An Epistemological Critique of Claude Bernard's Concept of the Internal Environment. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (5):493-514.
Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1995). Util-Izing Animals. Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):13-25.
Added to index2009-02-01
Total downloads27 ( #74,487 of 1,410,540 )
Recent downloads (6 months)5 ( #46,503 of 1,410,540 )
How can I increase my downloads?