David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):141 - 160 (1995)
Biomedical researchers claim there is significant biomedical information about humans which can be discovered only through experiments on intact animal systems (AMA p. 2). Although epidemiological studies, computer simulations, clinical investigation, and cell and tissue cultures have become important weapons in the biomedical scientists' arsenal, these are primarily "adjuncts to the use of animals in research" (Sigma Xi p. 76). Controlled laboratory experiments are the core of the scientific enterprise. Biomedical researchers claim these should be conducted on intact biological systems, whole animals. By observing the effects of various stimuli in non-human animals, we can form legitimate expectations about the likely effects of these stimuli in humans. Perhaps more importantly, we can understand the biomedical condition's causal mechanisms.
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Francesco Guala (2010). Extrapolation, Analogy, and Comparative Process Tracing. Philosophy of Science 77 (5):1070-1082.
T. M. Baetu (forthcoming). The 'Big Picture': The Problem of Extrapolation in Basic Research. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv018.
Robert C. Jones & Ray Greek (2014). A Review of the Institute of Medicine's Analysis of Using Chimpanzees in Biomedical Research. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):481-504.
Robert Meunier (2012). Stages in the Development of a Model Organism as a Platform for Mechanistic Models in Developmental Biology: Zebrafish, 1970–2000. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):522-531.
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