David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Journal of Business Ethics 61 (3):199 - 214 (2005)
This paper investigates the relationship between ethics and income among individuals of different religions in the HKSAR of China. The presence of both traditional Chinese religion and Christianity from the West makes our study particularly interesting. The content of ethical beliefs varies with religion and thus the effect of ethics on income may also vary across religion. Furthermore, a reverse causal relationship may run from income to ethics. Since culture and taste affect the consumption behavior of a person, depending on the religion of the person, a person with a higher income may or may not like to ‘acquire’ more ethics. Our empirical results find that there is indeed a simultaneous relationship between income and being ethical so that a single equation estimation of income on ethics and vice versa generates biased estimates. Using a two-stage instrumental variable estimation, our study finds that being ethical contributes to higher income for Christians and the non-religious group, but lowers it for people of traditional Chinese religion. On the other hand, an increase in income increases the likelihood of a person’s being ethical for both Christians and the people of traditional Chinese religion, but reduces it for the non-religious group.
|Keywords||ethics income religion christianity traditional Chinese culture|
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References found in this work BETA
Stephen J. Conroy & Tisha L. N. Emerson (2004). Business Ethics and Religion: Religiosity as a Predictor of Ethical Awareness Among Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 50 (4):383-396.
Wing-tsit Chan (1963). A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton, N.J.,Princeton University Press.
James W. Clark & Lyndon E. Dawson (1996). Personal Religiousness and Ethical Judgements: An Empirical Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (3):359 - 372.
Noel Y. M. Siu, John R. Dickinson & Betsy Y. Y. Lee (2000). Ethical Evaluations of Business Activities and Personal Religiousness. Teaching Business Ethics 4 (3):239-256.
Citations of this work BETA
Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2013). The Bright and Dark Sides of Religiosity Among University Students: Do Gender, College Major, and Income Matter? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):531-553.
Kit-Chun Lam & Guicheng Shi (2008). Factors Affecting Ethical Attitudes in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Journal of Business Ethics 77 (4):463-479.
Bala Ramasamy & Mathew Yeung (2009). Chinese Consumers' Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):119 - 132.
Noel Y. M. Siu & Kit-Chun Joanna Lam (2009). A Comparative Study of Ethical Perceptions of Managers and Non–Managers. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):167 - 183.
Chung-wen Chen (2013). Are Workers More Likely to Be Deviant Than Managers? A Cross-National Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):1-13.
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