David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Consciousness and Cognition 1 (3):289-305 (1992)
The dual concepts of mindfulness and mindlessness are described. Mindfulness is a state of conscious awareness in which the individual is implicitly aware of the context and content of information. It is a state of openness to novelty in which the individual actively constructs categories and distinctions. In contrast, mindlessness is a state of mind characterized by an over reliance on categories and distinctions drawn in the past and in which the individual is context-dependent and, as such, is oblivious to novel aspects of the situation. Mindlessness is compared to more familiar concepts such as habit, functional fixedness, overlearning, and automatic processing. Like mindlessness, these concepts concern rigid invariant behavior that occurs with little or no conscious awareness. The primary difference is that mindlessness may result from a single exposure to information. When information is given in absolute language, is given by an authority, or initially appears irrelevant, there is little manifest reason to critically examine the information and thereby recognize the ways it may be context-dependent. Instead, the individual mindlessly forms a cognitive commitment to the information and freezes its potential meaning. Alternative meanings or uses of the information become unavailable for active cognitive use. Automatic vs controlled processing, while seemingly most similar to mindlessness/mindfulness, are orthogonal to them. One can process information in a controlled but mindless manner, or automatic but mindful. Related concepts like scripts, set, expectancy, labels, and roles direct behavior, but these too may be enacted mindlessly or mindfully. The major consequences of mindlessness/mindfulness are discussed with respect to their relevance for overt behavior , memory, and health. Finally, the relationship between traditional notions of consciousness and mindfulness is briefly examined
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Daniel T. Gilbert, Douglas S. Krull & Patrick S. Malone (1990). Unbelieving the Unbelievable: Some Problems in the Rejection of False Information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (4):601-613.
Citations of this work BETA
Adam Moore & Peter Malinowski (2009). Meditation, Mindfulness and Cognitive Flexibility. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):176--186.
Similar books and articles
James P. Sterba (2002). Karen J. Warren, Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What It Is and Why It Matters:Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What It Is and Why It Matters. Ethics 113 (1):182-185.
Joan Marques (2012). Consciousness at Work: A Review of Some Important Values, Discussed From a Buddhist Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (1):27-40.
William E. Lyons (2001). Matters of the Mind. New York: Routledge.
Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin & Philip E. Varca (2010). Role Conflict, Mindfulness, and Organizational Ethics in an Education-Based Healthcare Institution. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (3):455 - 469.
Astrid M. Schulke, Herbert Plischke & Niko B. Kohls (2011). Dialectics of Mindfulness: Implications for Western Medicine. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6 (1):10-.
Antonino Raffone, Angela Tagini & Narayanan Srinivasan (2010). Mindfulness and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention and Awareness. Zygon 45 (3):627-646.
P. J. Benoit & W. L. Benoit (1986). Consciousness: The Mindlessness/Mindfulness and Verbal Report Controversies. Western Journal of Speech Communication 50:41-63.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads62 ( #35,825 of 1,696,639 )
Recent downloads (6 months)4 ( #144,292 of 1,696,639 )
How can I increase my downloads?