The You-I event: on the genesis of self-awareness [Book Review]
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):769-790 (2013)
I present empirical evidence suggesting that an infant first becomes aware of herself as the focal center of a caregiver's attending. Yet that does not account for her awareness of herself as agent. To address this question, I bring in research on neonatal imitation, as well as studies demonstrating the existence of a neural system in which parts of the same brain areas are activated when observing another's action and when executing a similar one. Applying these findings, I consider gestural exchanges between infant and caregiver, such as reciprocal smiles and imitative vocalizations. Lacking self-awareness at first, the infant is unaware of her own agency. By returning her unwitting gesture, the caregiver singles out for her—thanks to neural matching—the gesture's kinesthesis. Moreover, the caregiver's smile, imitative vocalization, or other gesture is the form that focusing takes. The kinesthesis of the infant's gesture, in being singled out, is experienced by the infant as what the caregiver is focusing on. It is experienced as being within the focal center. In this way, the infant becomes aware of herself as a bodily entity acting toward the caregiver. Exchanges that involve matching are at first essential, I argue, in making the infant present to herself in action. Matching will cease to be necessary, but self-awareness continues to depend fundamentally on others until the acquisition of language, when the child becomes capable of talking to herself as if she were the caregiver
|Keywords||Protoconversation Intersubjectivity Self-awareness Husserl Dialogue Second-person|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
José Luis Bermúdez (1996). The Moral Significance of Birth. Ethics 106 (2):378-403.
Laila Craighero, Irene Leo, Carlo Umiltà & Francesca Simion (2011). Newborns' Preference for Goal-Directed Actions. Cognition 120 (1):26-32.
Thomas Fuchs & Hanne de Jaegher (2009). Enactive Intersubjectivity: Participatory Sense-Making and Mutual Incorporation. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):465-486.
Shaun Gallagher (1996). The Moral Significance of Primitive Self-Consciousness: A Response to Bermudez. Ethics 107 (1):129-40.
Shaun Gallagher & Daniel D. Hutto (2008). Understanding Others Through Primary Interaction and Narrative Practice. In J. Zlatev, T. Racine, C. Sinha & E. Itkonen (eds.), The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity. John Benjamins. 17â38.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Talia Welsh (2006). Do Neonates Display Innate Self-Awareness? Why Neonatal Imitation Fails to Provide Sufficient Grounds for Innate Self-and Other-Awareness. Philosophical Psychology 19 (2):221-238.
Jane Lymer (2012). Infant Imitation and the Self—A Response to Welsh. Philosophical Psychology (2):1-23.
Debra M. Zeifman (2004). Colic and the Early Crying Curve: A Developmental Account. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):476-477.
Stein Braten (2004). Hominin Infant Decentration Hypothesis: Mirror Neurons System Adapted to Subserve Mother-Centered Participation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):508-509.
Vasudevi Reddy (2005). Before the `Third Element': Understanding Attention to Self. In Naomi Eilan, Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Johannes Roessler (eds.), Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds. Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford University Press. 85--109.
Dan Zahavi (2003). Inner Time-Consciousness and Pre-Reflective Self-Awareness. In Donn Welton (ed.), The New Husserl: A Critical Reader. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 157--180.
Kathleen Wider (2007). Emotional Communication and the Development of Self. Sartre Studies International 13 (2):1-26.
James Edward Swain, Linda C. Mayes & James F. Leckman (2004). The Development of Parent-Infant Attachment Through Dynamic and Interactive Signaling Loops of Care and Cry. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):472-473.
Rami Nader, Elizabeth A. Job, Melanie Badali & Kenneth D. Craig (2004). Infant Crying in Context. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):469-470.
Thor Grunbaum (2008). The Body in Action. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):243-261.
Dan Zahavi (2000). Self and Consciousness. In , Exploring the Self: Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspectives on Self-Experience. John Benjamins. 55--74.
John Schwenkler (2013). The Objects of Bodily Awareness. Philosophical Studies 162 (2):465-472.
Andrew N. Meltzoff (1993). Molyneux's Babies: Cross-Modal Perception, Imitation, and the Mind of the Preverbal Infant. In Naomi M. Eilan (ed.), Spatial Representation. Cambridge: Blackwell. 219--235.
Added to index2012-10-09
Total downloads115 ( #8,884 of 1,102,807 )
Recent downloads (6 months)31 ( #3,522 of 1,102,807 )
How can I increase my downloads?