El desafío de Billy Budd. Dilemas morales y dimensión institucional del derecho (The Billy Budd's Challenge. Moral Dilemmas and Institutional Dimension of Law)

Critica 39 (116):51 - 78 (2007)
En este artículo se analiza el problema especial que tiene que enfrentar un agente moral cualificado institucionalmente, en específico un juez de un sistema jurídico cuando tiene que decidir sobre una situación que supone un dilema moral o jurídico. A partir de la historia de Melville, Billy Budd, se examinan los principales desafíos que el caso de Billy Budd plantea a la filosofía jurídica y la filosofía moral. Se muestra cómo el desafío es discutido por los filósofos del derecho en términos de la dimensión institucional del derecho, y por los filósofos morales cuando tratan las cosas en términos de una ética kantiana, en oposición a una ética de la virtud. Por último se sugiere la necesidad de contar con una visión más integrada de la filosofía moral y la filosofía del derecho. /// This paper analyzes the special problem that an institutionally qualified moral agent faces. In particular, it deals with the case of a judge in a legal system facing a moral or legal dilemma. By focusing on Melville's Billy Budd, the text examines the main challenges that the Billy Budd case poses to legal and moral philosophy. It shows how the challenge is discussed by philosophers of law and by moral philosophers. Finally, it suggests the need for a more integrated perspective in moral and legal philosophy.
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