David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):161-209 (2006)
Why are people interested in money? Specifically, what could be the biological basis for the extraordinary incentive and reinforcing power of money, which seems to be unique to the human species? We identify two ways in which a commodity which is of no biological significance in itself can become a strong motivator. The first is if it is used as a tool, and by a metaphorical extension this is often applied to money: it is used instrumentally, in order to obtain biologically relevant incentives. Second, substances can be strong motivators because they imitate the action of natural incentives but do not produce the fitness gains for which those incentives are instinctively sought. The classic examples of this process are psychoactive drugs, but we argue that the drug concept can also be extended metaphorically to provide an account of money motivation. From a review of theoretical and empirical literature about money, we conclude that (i) there are a number of phenomena that cannot be accounted for by a pure Tool Theory of money motivation; (ii) supplementing Tool Theory with a Drug Theory enables the anomalous phenomena to be explained; and (iii) the human instincts that, according to a Drug Theory, money parasitizes include trading (derived from reciprocal altruism) and object play. (Published Online April 5 2006) Key Words: economic behaviour; evolutionary psychology; giving; incentive; money; motivation; play; reciprocal altruism.
|Keywords||economic behaviour evolutionary psychology giving incentive money motivation play reciprocal altruism|
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Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Hsi Liu (2012). Love of Money and Unethical Behavior Intention: Does an Authentic Supervisor's Personal Integrity and Character (ASPIRE) Make a Difference? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):295-312.
Soňa Lemrová, Eva Reiterová, Renáta Fatěnová, Karel Lemr & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2013). Money is Power: Monetary Intelligence—Love of Money and Temptation of Materialism Among Czech University Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 125 (2):1-20.
Jingqiu Chen, Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Ningyu Tang (2013). Temptation, Monetary Intelligence (Love of Money), and Environmental Context on Unethical Intentions and Cheating. Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):1-23.
Thomas Li-Ping Tang (forthcoming). Theory of Monetary Intelligence: Money Attitudes—Religious Values, Making Money, Making Ethical Decisions, and Making the Grade. Journal of Business Ethics.
Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen (2008). Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Across College Major and Gender. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1 - 26.
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