Persisting effects of instruction on young children's syllogistic reasoning with incongruent and abstract premises
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Thinking and Reasoning 5 (2):145 – 173 (1999)
Studies of reasoning have often invoked a distinction between a natural or ordinary consideration of the premises, in which they are interpreted, and even distorted, in the light of empirical knowledge, and an analytic or logical consideration of the premises, in which they are analysed in a literal fashion for their logical implications. Two or three years of schooling have been seen as critical for the spontaneous use of analytic reasoning. In two experiments, however, 4-year-olds who were given brief instructions that prompted use of an analytic approach continued to adopt this approach one week later. Thus, when given syllogistic problems in which the major premise was incongruent with their empirical knowledge (e.g. "All snow is black"), instructed children reasoned more accurately from that premise both immediately and a week later as compared to children given only a basic introduction. A third experiment showed that instructions also improved 4-year-olds' performance on hard-to-imagine, abstract material (e.g."All mib is white"). Similarities between the effects of brief instruction and of schooling are discussed.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Paul L. Harris (2002). Checking Our Sources: The Origins of Trust in Testimony. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (2):315-333.
Markus Knauff (2007). How Our Brains Reason Logically. Topoi 26 (1):19-36.
Paul L. Harris (2001). Thinking About the Unknown. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (11):494-498.
Similar books and articles
Eef Ameel, Niki Verschueren & Walter Schaeken (2007). The Relevance of Selecting What's Relevant: A Dual Process Approach to Transitive Reasoning with Spatial Relations. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (2):164 – 187.
Guy Politzer & Hugo Mercier (2008). Solving Categorical Syllogisms with Singular Premises. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):434 – 454.
Hugo Mercier & Guy Politzer (2011). Solving Categorical Syllogisms with Singular Premises. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):434-454.
Mary R. Newsome & P. N. Johnson-Laird (2006). How Falsity Dispels Fallacies. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):214 – 234.
Jamie A. Prowse Turner & Valerie A. Thompson (2009). The Role of Training, Alternative Models, and Logical Necessity in Determining Confidence in Syllogistic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):69 – 100.
Rosemary J. Stevenson & David E. Over (2001). Reasoning From Uncertain Premises: Effects of Expertise and Conversational Context. Thinking and Reasoning 7 (4):367 – 390.
Teresa McCormack & Christoph Hoerl (2007). Young Children's Reasoning About the Order of Past Events. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 98 (3):168-183.
Henry Markovits (2000). A Mental Model Analysis of Young Children's Conditional Reasoning with Meaningful Premises. Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):335 – 347.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads13 ( #284,960 of 1,934,666 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #269,464 of 1,934,666 )
How can I increase my downloads?