David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Emotion Review 3 (4):379-386 (2011)
Among discrete emotions, basic emotions are the most elemental; most distinct; most continuous across species, time, and place; and most intimately related to survival-critical functions. For an emotion to be afforded basic emotion status it must meet criteria of: (a) distinctness (primarily in behavioral and physiological characteristics), (b) hard-wiredness (circuitry built into the nervous system), and (c) functionality (provides a generalized solution to a particular survival-relevant challenge or opportunity). A set of six emotions that most clearly meet these criteria (enjoyment, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and three additional emotions (relief/contentment, interest, love) for which the evidence is not yet quite as strong is described. Empirical approaches that are most and least useful for establishing basic-emotion status are discussed. Basic emotions are thought to have a central organizing mechanism and to have the capacity to influence behavior, thoughts, and other fundamental processes.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
Manuel G. Calvo & Lauri Nummenmaa (forthcoming). Perceptual and Affective Mechanisms in Facial Expression Recognition: An Integrative Review. Cognition and Emotion:1-26.
Augustin Kelava, Michael Muma, Marlene Deja, Jack Y. Dagdagan & Abdelhak M. Zoubir (2015). A New Approach for the Quantification of Synchrony of Multivariate Non-Stationary Psychophysiological Variables During Emotion Eliciting Stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
Similar books and articles
Andrea Scarantino & Paul Grifftiths (2011). Don't Give Up on Basic Emotions. Emotion Review 3 (4):444-454.
Paul E. Griffiths (2003). Basic Emotions, Complex Emotions, Machiavellian Emotions. In A. Hatimoysis (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press 39-67.
Alexandra Zinck & Albert Newen (2008). Classifying Emotion: A Developmental Account. Synthese 161 (1):1 - 25.
Paul Griffiths (2001). Basic Emotions, Complex Emotions, Machiavellian Emotions. Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Philosophy 52:39-67.
Jesse J. Prinz (2004). Which Emotions Are Basic? In D. Evans & Pierre Cruse (eds.), Emotion, Evolution, and Rationality. Oxford University Press 69--87.
Keith Oatley & Philip N. Johnson-Laird (2011). Basic Emotions in Social Relationships, Reasoning, and Psychological Illnesses. Emotion Review 3 (4):424-433.
O. Flanagan (2000). Destructive Emotions. Consciousness and Emotion 1 (2):259-281.
Paul Ekamn & Daniel Cordaro (2011). What is Meant by Calling Emotions Basic. Emotion Review 3 (4): Emotion Review October 2364-370.
Louis C. Charland (2002). The Natural Kind Status of Emotion. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):511-37.
Eva-Maria Engelen (2012). Meaning and Emotion. In Paul A. Wilson (ed.), Dynamicity in Emotion Concepts. Peter Lang
Carroll Izard (2007). Levels of Emotion and Levels of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):96-98.
Jonathan H. Turner (2009). The Sociology of Emotions: Basic Theoretical Arguments. Emotion Review 1 (4):240-254.
Edmund T. Rolls (2005). Emotion Explained. OUP Oxford.
Rainer Reisenzein (1998). Outlines of a Theory of Emotions as Metarepresentational States of Mind. In A. H. Fischer (ed.), ISRE ' 98, Proceedings of the 10th Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions (pp. 186-191). ISRE
Aaron Ben-Ze'ev (2002). Are Envy, Anger, and Resentment Moral Emotions? Philosophical Explorations 5 (2):148 – 154.
Added to index2011-12-23
Total downloads17 ( #224,658 of 1,911,837 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #323,440 of 1,911,837 )
How can I increase my downloads?