David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Synthese 43 (1):47 - 78 (1980)
Biology above the level of the individual organism ? population ecology and genetics, community ecology, biogeography and evolution ? requires the study of intrinsically complex systems. But the dominant philosophies of western science have proven to be inadequate for the study of complexity:(1)The reductionist myth of simplicity leads its advocates to isolate parts as completely as possible and study these parts. It underestimates the importance of interactions in theory, and its recommendations for practice (in agricultural programs or conservation and environmental protection) are typically thwarted by the power of indirect and unanticipated causes rather than by error in the detailed description of their own objects of study.(2)Reductionism ignores properties of complex wholes; the effects of these properties are therefore seen only as noise; this randomness is elevated into an ontological principle which leads to the blocking of investigation and the reification of statistics, so that data reduction and statistical prediction often pass for explanation.(3)The faith in the atomistic nature of the world makes the allocation of relative weights to separate causes the main object of science, and makes it more difficult to study the nature of interconnectedness
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References found in this work BETA
R. C. Lewontin (1974). The Analysis of Variance and the Analysis of Causes. American Journal of Human Genetics 26:400-11.
Daniel Simberloff (1980). A Succession of Paradigms in Ecology: Essentialism to Materialism and Probabilism. Synthese 43 (1):3 - 39.
Citations of this work BETA
Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2013). Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'. Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.
Ullica Segerstrale (1986). Colleagues in Conflict: An 'in Vivo' Analysis of the Sociobiology Controversy. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):53-87.
William C. Wimsatt (1980). Randomness and Perceived-Randomness in Evolutionary Biology. Synthese 43 (2):287 - 329.
Pierrick Bourrat (2014). From Survivors to Replicators: Evolution by Natural Selection Revisited. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):517-538.
Raphael Falk (1990). Between Beanbag Genetics and Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 5 (3):313-325.
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