David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):455-484 (2013)
Research on patients with damage to ventromedial frontal cortices suggests a key role for emotions in practical decision making. This field of investigation is often associated with Antonio Damasio’s Somatic Marker Hypothesis—a putative account of the mechanism through which autonomic tags guide decision making in typical individuals. Here we discuss two questionable assumptions—or ‘myths’—surrounding the direction and interpretation of this research. First, it is often assumed that there is a single somatic marker hypothesis. As others have noted, however, Damasio’s ‘hypothesis’ admits of multiple interpretations (Dunn et al. ; Colombetti ). Our analysis builds upon this point by characterizing decision making as a multi-stage process and identifying the various potential roles for somatic markers. The second myth is that the available evidence suggests a role for somatic markers in the core stages of decision making, that is, during the generation, deliberation, or evaluation of candidate options. On the contrary, we suggest that somatic markers most likely have a peripheral role, in the recognition of decision points, or in the motivation of action. This conclusion is based on an examination of the past twenty-five years of research conducted by Damasio and colleagues, focusing in particular on some early experiments that have been largely neglected by the critical literature. 1 Introduction2 What is the Somatic Marker Model?3 Multiple Somatic Marker Hypotheses3.1 Are somatic markers necessary for practical decision making?3.2 Speed, accuracy, or both?3.3 At which of the five stages of decision making are somatic markers engaged?4 Anecdotal Evidence Suggests a Peripheral Role for Somatic Markers4.1 Chronic indecisiveness4.2 Extreme impulsiveness4.3 Enhanced decision making in the lab4.4 Lack of motivation. 5 Early Experiments Suggest that VMF Damage Leaves Core Processes Intact5.1 The evocative images study5.2 Five problem solving tasks6 Recent Experiments Fail to Discriminate among Alternate Versions of SMH7 Conclusion
|Keywords||Somatic Marker Hypothesis Neuropsychology Decision Making Emotion Affect Damasio|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
No references found.
Citations of this work BETA
No citations found.
Similar books and articles
Allison Barnes & Paul Thagard (1996). Emotional Decisions. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum 426--429.
Giovanna Colombetti (2008). The Somatic Marker Hypotheses, and What the Iowa Gambling Task Does and Does Not Show. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (1):51-71.
Philip Gerrans (2007). Mental Time Travel, Somatic Markers and "Myopia for the Future". Synthese 159 (3):459 - 474.
Kathryn E. Patten (2011). The Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect: Paradigm for Educational Neuroscience and Neuropedagogy. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (1):87-97.
Bruce G. Charlton (2001). Theory of Mind and the “Somatic Marker Mechanism” (SMM). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1141-1142.
Ann Pirruccello (2002). Making the World My Body: Simone Weil and Somatic Practice. Philosophy East and West 52 (4):479-497.
Yu Nishitsutsumi (2010). Does the “Iowa Gambling Task” Really Verify the Somatic Marker Hypothesis? Kagaku Tetsugaku 43 (1):31-44.
Bartlomiej Swiatczak (2011). Indeterminism in the Immune System: The Case of Somatic Hypermutation. Paradigmi 1:49-65.
Dawn R. Elm & Tara J. Radin (2012). Ethical Decision Making: Special or No Different? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):313-329.
E. Goldberg & K. Podell (1999). Adaptive Versus Veridical Decision Making and the Frontal Lobes. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (3):364-377.
C. S. Sripada & Stephen P. Stich (2004). Evolution, Culture, and the Irrationality of the Emotions. In D. Evans & Pierre Cruse (eds.), Emotion, Evolution, and Rationality. Oxford University Press
Timothy Caulfield & Tania Bubela (2007). Why a Criminal Ban? Analyzing the Arguments Against Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Canadian Parliamentary Debate. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):51 – 61.
Brad J. Kallenberg (2009). Teaching Engineering Ethics by Conceptual Design: The Somatic Marker Hypothesis. Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (4):563-576.
Chandra Sekhar Sripada & Stephen Stich (2004). Evolution, Culture and the Irrationality of the Emotions. In D. Evans & Pierre Cruse (eds.), Emotion, Evolution, and Rationality. Oxford University Press
Added to index2012-07-21
Total downloads125 ( #14,392 of 1,707,789 )
Recent downloads (6 months)91 ( #4,115 of 1,707,789 )
How can I increase my downloads?