Logical and Metaphysical Assumptions of Bernard Bolzano's Theodicy
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Forum Philosophicum 12 (1):33 - 56 (2007)
Bolzano’s theodicy is a very good example of Platonism in the philosophy of religion. Above all, Bolzano believes that there obtains an ideal realm of truths in themselves and mathematical objects, which are independent of God. Therefore, we are allowed to conclude that God is only a contractor; true, more powerful than Plato’s demiurge because He created substances and sustains them in existence, but God must follow a project which is independent of Him. Since the world is determined, by the program and God follows the program, then in fact the program is a god, or better, there is no God. Bolzano’s project is not related to God’s essence, since it is external to God, and is not made by God. Thus, Bolzano’s theodicy is also the absolute opposite of the Cartesian theodicy. God in the Cartesian theodicy can change all rules, all scientific laws and, in consequence, He can create any world He wants. Bolzano’s God cannot change anything and cannot create a different world than the world
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