David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Economics and Philosophy 8 (01):23- (1992)
Many recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI) research are relevant for traditional issues in the philosophy of science. One of the developments in AI research we want to focus on in this article is diagnostic reasoning, which we consider to be of interest for the theory of explanation in general and for an understanding of explanatory arguments in economic science in particular. Usually, explanation is primarily discussed in terms of deductive inferences in classical logic. However, in recent AI research it is observed that a diagnostic explanation is actually quite different from deductive reasoning (see, for example, Reiter, 1987). In diagnostic reasoning the emphasis is on restoring consistency rather than on deduction. Intuitively speaking, the problem diagnostic reasoning is concerned with is the following. Consider a description of a system in which the normal behavior of the system is characterized and an observation that conflicts with this normal behavior. The diagnostic problem is to determine which of the components of the system can, when assumed to be functioning abnormally, account for the conflicting observation. A diagnosis is a set of allegedly malfunctioning components that can be used to restore the consistency of the system description and the observation. In this article, this kind of reasoning is formalized and we show its importance for the theory of explanation. We will show how the diagnosis nondeductively explains the discrepancy between the observed and the correct system behavior. The article also shows the relevance of the subject for real scientific arguments by showing that examples of diagnostic reasoning can be found in Friedman's Theory of the Consumption Function (1957). Moreover, it places the philosophical implications of diagnostic reasoning in the context of Mill's aprioristic methodology.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Nancy Cartwright (1983). How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford University Press.
Nancy Cartwright (1989). Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement. Oxford University Press.
Milton Friedman (1953). Essays in Positive Economics. University of Chicago Press.
John McCarthy (1980). Circumscription — A Form of Non-Monotonic Reasoning. Artificial Intelligence 13:27–39.
M. Blaug (1983). The Methodology of Economics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (3):289-295.
Citations of this work BETA
Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Renée Elio (2005). The Case for Psychologism in Default and Inheritance Reasoning. Synthese 146 (1-2):7 - 35.
Similar books and articles
Laurence B. McCullough & Charles E. Christianson (1987). Ethical Dimensions of Diagnosis: A Case Study and Analysis. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2):129-143.
Dan Sperber (2011). Why Do Humans Reason? Arguments for an Argumentative Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):57.
Caroline Whitbeck (1981). What is Diagnosis? Some Critical Reflections. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (3):319-329.
Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh (1982). Foundations of Clinical Praxiology Part II: Categorical and Conjectural Diagnoses. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 3 (1):101-114.
Gopal Sreenivasan (2009). Ethics and Epidemiology: The Income Debate. Public Health Ethics 2 (1):45-52.
Mark H. Waymack (2009). Yearning for Certainty and the Critique of Medicine as “Science”. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (3):215-229.
Leendert W. N. Torre & Yao-Hua Tan (1999). Diagnosis and Decision Making in Normative Reasoning. Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (1).
Dominick A. Rizzi (1994). Causal Reasoning and the Diagnostic Process. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (3):315-333.
Jan Doroszewski (1980). Hypothetico-Nomological Aspects of Medical Diagnosis Part I: General Structure of the Diagnostic Process and its Hypothesis-Directed Stage. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (2):177-194.
Reidun Førde (1998). Competing Conceptions of Diagnostic Reasoning – is There a Way Out? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (1):59-72.
Added to index2010-08-10
Total downloads3 ( #461,337 of 1,724,745 )
Recent downloads (6 months)1 ( #349,121 of 1,724,745 )
How can I increase my downloads?